Design, location, spacing, and drainage are import in minimizing equipment involvement in a fire but additional protective measures may still be necessary. One protective measure is to improve the capacity of equipment and its support structure to maintain their structural integrity during a fire. Fireproofing achieves this with passive protection (PFP) in contrast to fixed water spray systems, monitors, or portable hose lines, which provide active protection. One example of passive fire protection is concrete.
A hydrocarbon fire inflicts initial damage by directly heating metal beyond its limits and destroying the equipment or building. One way to mitigate this damage is to install fireproofing of structural steel. Conventional concrete, lightweight concrete and brick give a satisfactory degree of protection to metal assemblies for a period of time. The standard time-temperature curve is defined in ASTM E-119 and represents a wood fire that does not reach 3400°F (1870°C) for 4 hrs.